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Plants absorb carbon dioxide and renew the stock of oxygen in our atmosphere. Through the mechanism of photosynthesis, they produce carbohydrates, the main constituent of plant material. That is why it is customary to assume that the carbon released during combustion of biomass is neutral globally. If we think in life cycle, wood leads according to ADEME, less CO2 emissions than conventional fossil fuels. The agency has determined that the use of wood logs results in the emission of 40g of CO2 per kwh returned while the use of oil emits 466g of CO2/KWh. Specifically consumption of 4 cubic meters of wood to replace one ton of oil prevents the emission into the atmosphere of 2.5 tonnes of CO2.
Remember also that wood is a renewable energy that renews itself about a million times faster than fossil fuels such as coal or oil. According to ADEME, if its management is reasonable, it can at the same time ensure the renewal of the forest and meet the needs of men each year in France, the annual timber harvest (52 million m3 in 2003) is less to organic production forest (125 million m3). The wood energy sector is also a great way to reuse by-products and waste from the timber industry. It also participates in the sound management and maintenance of forests, thus including the quality of the landscape and reducing the risk of fire.
Harvesting, processing and utilization of wood energy are powerful factors in the development of employment, especially in rural areas. According to the National Federation of Wood, wood energy creates an average of three times more local employment than fossil fuels. This is explained by the need to mobilize the wood from the maintenance of natural environments or from commercial, industrial and craft activities, collect and process raw materials, fuel, deliver the wood boiler, exploit boiler and recycle ash in agriculture or forest. Assuming an increase in the share of wood 50% in the assessment of the final energy consumption in France, FNB believes that the number of additional jobs could exceed 20,000.
The wood fuel is not or little affected by cyclical changes in the price of oil, the ETF is convinced that wood energy is a way to control the cost of energy in the long term. She explains that in the case of a conventional boiler, the fossil fuel alone accounts for 80% of the heating load of the user. With a wood boiler, wood fuel accounts for only 25% to 30% of the final cost of the heat, the rest of the bill relating to the amortization of equipment, staff costs and maintenance of the boiler and that the fossil energy used in booster (gas or oil). According to ADEME, the price of electricity produced from wood amounts to 3.50 cents in the case of logs sold € 60 stere against the average 7.00 € ct per kWh of natural gas, 9.60 € ct per kWh of fuel and € 11.00 ct electric kWh.
The low cost of wood fuel partly offsets the largest depreciation and operating equipment. However, investment subsidies (40-70% depending on the region and the importance of projects) are needed to achieve economic balance or have a slight advantage over fossil fuels.
With the development of wood energy the issue of air pollution by fumes facilities has grown in importance. If burning wood turns neutral CO2, however it comes to emissions of other pollutants. In theory, the products of complete combustion of wood are only carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), but when combustion is incomplete, other products are found in gases: carbon monoxide (CO ), unburned solids (soot, tar, coal, ..), volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans. However, these products are in the minority because even in the case of incomplete combustion fumes are composed of 99% by volume of H2O, CO2.
To better assess the impact of potential pollutant due to the development of the sector, several studies have been undertaken including the Interprofessional Technical Centre for the Study of Air Pollution (CITEPA) and the Ministry of Ecology in partnership with the ADEME, CSTB and the University of Savoie. But according to a paper prepared by the combination of monitoring air quality SFX Rhône-Alpes dated October 2007, it is difficult to assess the impact of wood burning on air quality in terms of many parameters that affect emissions: characteristics of the fuel (gasoline, ash content, moisture content), the nature of home (geometry, air distribution, printing), quality of operation (residence time, excess air load timber, ...) and the parameters related to the installation.
Standards impose maximum emissions for devices according to the association but it is necessary to strengthen the knowledge, such as atmospheric emissions of different materials in actual operation, educate professionals about the importance of design of facilities and especially awareness population on the importance of good combustion and from wood. ADEME also put on the modernization of equipment to reduce emissions. By 2020, emissions would be reduced by 30% for metals, 38% for dioxins, 58% for dust.
Kwh / cbm
Weight of a
Weight of 1 cubic m *
Reconstituted oak log:
It can be seen that all the europe
world rushes on oak.
This is a shame because it is a wood
which takes a long time to grow.
* Dry wood to 20% moisture without vacuum.
8% moisture for oak redialed
The weight of the wood:
Density of the main firewood:
The volume of wood
While it is true that today cubic meter is not a legally recognized for the calculation of the amount of firewood unit use in the forester profession and the lack of equivalent unit , wants it to be still predominant in relation to cubic meter.
Indeed cubic meter calculates a volume of the stacked logs or can not correspond to a volume due to the presence of void therebetween. This is why we speak in the profession of stere remains our reference unit.
Know that your logs are short more than the apparent volume decreases for the same quantity in cubic meter.
My supplier of firewood delivered me X cords of firewood 40 cm.
After placing, the following measures my woodpile:
Beech is considered the ideal wood heating because it gives a beautiful flame and good sparks and embers almost has a high calorific value.
The oak has multiple uses. It gives good embers but less beautiful flame. The calorific value is a little higher than that of beech and combustion is the best.
The charm, as well as oak, has a very high calorific value. It gives a beautiful flame and burns longer.
Ash gives the most beautiful flame. It is ideal for fireplaces, because it produces few sparks.
The oak recomposed 100% oak, a moisture content less than 8% allow a calorific value of 5.3 kW / kg and ash content less than 1%. 2 meters / cube is the equivalent of about 6-7 cubic meters of ordinary wood logs, and provide ease and cleanliness unmatched storage.
Species of firewood :
Firewood is now a renewable fuel available in large quantities in Europe. Firewood is a traditional economic energy, ecological, renewable and clean. The firewood is composed of 50% carbon, 42% oxygen, 6% of hydrogen and 1% of inorganic material. Thanks to its high oxygen content, the wood requires little air to burn.
The calorific value (or heat of combustion) of wood varies with species, some more suitable than others to heat his home. With a good selection of wood species for your timber merchant, you get the best firewood.
Here is the table that classifies woods of our regions. The coefficient 10 corresponds to the type of wood that gives the most heat per m3.
Knowing the energy wood!
Compare heat / wood species
The water content
To burn properly, the wood must be dry. During combustion of the wood, a large part of the energy is devoted to heating and vaporizing the water (contained in the timber), the heat capacity and latent heat is particularly high.
Green wood contains more than half of its weight in water. A wood in equilibrium with the ambient air (balance achieved after two years of drying of hardwood logs split) has an order humidity of 20%, provided they are stored in a local particularly dry to avoid moisture absorption.
Calorific value (NCV) of wood:
- Wood Green 40% humidity = 2.7 kWh / kg
- Wood-dry 30% moisture = 3.3 kWh / kg
- Wood dry 20% moisture = 4.0 kWh / kg
- Wood oak logs blended 8% moisture = 5.3 kWh / kg
wood combustion takes place in three phases:
1) An evaporation phase: The wood contains water. During this first phase, the energy produced by the combustion will not be used to produce heat, which is the desired goal, but to evaporate the water contained in the wood. Thus, over a wood is wet, less combustion will heat, hence the need to burn dry wood. The evaporation phase occurs from a temperature of 100 ° C. This drying phase should last at least as long as possible to reach a temperature sufficient to continue burning wood.
2) A decomposition phase: If the wood is heated to a temperature of 240 ° C, it will ignite. This is due to the combustible gases released by the decomposition of wood. This phase is also called wood gasification. Decomposing wood produces combustible gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen or hydrocarbon. In the absence of sufficient oxygen (provided by air) and the temperature is too low, the combustion of these gases is incomplete and they leave in the chimney (flue). It is therefore important to have an adequate supply of air for complete combustion of the gases from the decomposition of wood.
3) carbonization stage: From a certain temperature (around 500 ° C) it remains only the incandescent carbon (embers). This produces a carbon oxidation reaction that releases heat. This reaction requires sufficient oxygen and high temperature to complete. Otherwise, there will be unburned gas will escape through the chimney, where a loss of energy and release of carbon monoxide. When this phase takes place, the temperature generated can reach 1500 ° C. The combustion then emerges as CO ² and water vapor.
At the end of the combustion, it is theoretically and ash (approximately 1-2% of the mass introduced).
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An innovative way to produce hot water, a perfect blend between wood burning and solar.
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